Constellation Network is the result of multi-disciplinary mathematical concepts all converging together to create a technology that has the power to change the world. It is truly unprecedented and unparalleled in its elegance and scope. Please join me as I attempt to distil the magnificence imbued in this elegant masterpiece.
Exclusive Technological Differentiators
Essentially, Constellation Network can be classified as next generation distributed ledger tech that is able to reconcile seemingly opposing qualities of distributed and decentralized networks that were previously thought impossible according to thought leaders in the crypto industry who have conceptualized this problem as the “Trilemma”. Beyond the security, scalability, and decentralization aspects of the Trilemma, Constellation has also solved the composability and interoperability problems plaguing DLTs that have more recent acknowledgement as properties that are diametrically opposed. Altogether, I personally refer to these five interdependent qualities as constituting the “Quinlemma“.
A Breakthrough Innovation in Consensus Algorithms
The invention of the Directed Acyclic Hypergraph has no equal on the market and solves this Quinlemma while also enabling economic scalability (generative economics; more on this later). It eliminates the need to compromise or trade-off security, scalability, decentralization, composability, and interoperability. It achieves this through a micro-services architecture which utilizes a leaderless, concurrent, asynchronous byzantine fault tolerant consensus algorithm that is further enhanced by machine learning models to dynamically determine node trustworthiness and network optimization. Constellation refers to this as their Proof of Reputable Observation (PRO) consensus algorithm which automatically prevents forking and enables self-healing of the network through its dynamic multi-level partitioning.
This is the most democratic, secure, and fair of all of the various consensus algorithms out there when compared to Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), Delegated Proof of Stake (dPoS), and its endless variants. Independent from Constellation Network’s innovation, Anton Klonin and Ben Goertzel have done phenomenal work on advancing the research and outlining the practical applications of reputation based consensus algorithms and its implications for enabling liquid democracy for distributed artificial intelligence agents (and maybe one day shaping the governance and consensus of human agents ;-). I highly recommend reading their blog posts and papers which I’ve linked above to familiarize yourself with their indisputable brilliance. I also suggest following their respective DAOs and companies they are involved within the AI and crypto space.
Constellation’s reputation based consensus algorithms enable unprecedented Sybil attack resistance, to quote Constellation’s CTO & Co-Founder:
“Basically, all it takes is one node in our network, to prevent a sybil attack. Literally if one node has not been compromised or been a part of some kind like collusion attack, this would mean that operators would have to get together and deploy code that is not the correct source code. All it takes is one, because, the fact that any kind of action that could be seen as invalid to invalidate a chain state, is stored directly in chain. So, if you try to read back the state of nodes who perform a sybil attack, it will be read back as an invalid state. So, if all it takes is one node to keep the cluster online, then we can rejoin nodes to that one node, or we can join extra peers to that one node to kick consensus off again, because that node will have forked from the other peers. This also explains how re-download works as well.” — Wyatt Meldman-Floch, CTO & Co-founder (paraphrased for brevity from a technical AMA discussion)
This unique non-linear architecture enables nodes at the very edge of the network to validate data just as easily as nodes located at the core, allowing for wide range of horizontal and vertical scalability using devices such as mobile phones to function as a “lite node” or a cloud server running a full node to perform consensus concurrently. You can imagine a scenario where a smart city comprised of various devices such as IoT devices, autonomous vehicles, drones, even satellites, all conducting validation at the edge of the network.
To put this into context from a transactions per second (TPS) perspective, the theoretical throughput based on the number of active mobile devices in 2018 alone would equate to 30 Billion TP/S. This doesn’t even account for other device types running lite nodes nor the most recent number of mobile devices distributed as of 2021. The finality windows per state channel are also configurable which then surface up into the global consensus snapshot for the Hypergraph itself. Ultimately, this is just an example of how the architecture is not bounded to any horizontal or vertical scaling limitations due to its network of DAGs approach to scaling compared to other Layer 1 networks that rely on linear sharding or Layer 2 networks that introduce centralization risks and off-chain dependencies.
Validation of Complex Data Structures
The Hypergraph’s scope goes way beyond validating a transaction or an account balance on a ledger that current distributed ledgers based on blockchain or directed acyclic graph (DAG) technology are designed to solve. It is the first decentralized network that is capable of validating complex data streams in real time, making it suitable for Big Data and cybersecurity applications that were previously impossible to conceive of with existing technologies. This explains Quant Network and Chainlink’s desire to integrate with Constellation Network to incorporate big data into their oracles which I will elaborate later on in this article.
, did a great job expanding on the above illustration to depict the single-tier and multi-tier Hylochain architecture which is now referred to as Hypergraph. This, of course, is from 2018 and based on the original whitepaper which has likely evolved since. Updated official documentation is planned to be released sometime in Q4 along with main net 2.0. The medium blogger also made a great observation regarding how Constellation is using “MapReduce to break down the process of computation into simple operations that can be fed into an asynchronous DAG of computation, thereby increasing the efficiency of an already concurrent program (paraphrased)”. The permissionless network is flexible enough to enable a state channel to create a permissioned network if desired and use the public network for consensus. This is a great article written to help conceptualize the mathematical concepts for those that don’t hold PHDs in mathematics and physics. You can also view some additional elaboration by Wyatt on this twitter thread. I also attempted to summarize it here, albeit from a more generalized perspective. I also suggest watching this presentation (you can also review the slides here).
The Hypergraph is flexible enough to validate and model any complex data structure, opening the ability to model and validate data streams originating from other distributed ledger networks such as Ethereum, Bitcoin, Polkadot, and Cardano (as examples). This grants these Layer 1 networks the opportunity to take advantage of the unique mathematical properties and capabilities of the Constellation Network while allowing for cross chain swapping of tokenized assets, all without the need to perform token wrapping that would normally introduce counter party risk and centralization. This also eliminates the transaction fees associated with wrapping tokens that each network participant would need to pay. Co-founder of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin, expressed his concern about wrapped tokens himself:
You can think of Constellation as a “Layer 0” meta-network that can create a true network of networks which effectively creates a decentralized order book of global liquidity from which all DLTs can exchange assets. The technical mechanics of how this is accomplished can be explained with yet another unique innovation known as an emission, which is a data structure that essentially represents an inverse of a transaction (I like to think of it as an anti-transaction) that can serve as a unit of exchange across chains or ledgers. The Hypergraph Transfer Protocol, or HGTP for short, creates a connection between liquidity pools across ledgers by essentially wrapping the entire L1 protocol itself into the Hypergraph, which then enables the emission data structure to be validated as a two sided transaction by converging on a global consensus across ledgers. The concept of an emission data structure is only possible due to the generative economics mathematical framework that has been incorporated into the design of Constellation Network which I will expand upon later in this article.
An extremely technical live demonstration conducted by Wyatt goes into the guts of how to interact with the Hypergraph and define parameters within a state channel as a programmer. Essentially he created an algebraic abstraction, referred to as a monoid, to mathematically interact with any protocol using functional programming. This enables any developer to build and orchestrate extremely complex, secure, and fault-tolerant data pipelines with just the knowledge of the simple high level API (application programming interface)!!!
“Yep, it’s consensus over consensus. It’s like literally a universe for all the different state channel galaxies, or different L_1 galaxies. Bitcoin is like a part of the universe on its own ledger that’s so far, you need quantum entanglement and a wormhole to get there and connect it — that’s what Constellation did.
We created a warp space that connects all these different disparate galaxies into a shared universe. That’s the L_0. So, Ethereum is thinking about their little galaxy and their little way of doing stuff, our goal is to try and connect all the galaxies seamlessly.” — Wyatt Meldman-Floch, CTO & Co-founder (from Constellation Coffee Talks — Cross-Chain)
If you were to try and visualize the network architecture, imagine a network of DAG networks. This can also be thought of as a “Constellation” of DAGs , hence the company name Constellation Network. You have the Hypergraph itself which is a DAG that represents the entire global consensus state and then an infinite amount of independent DAG networks (referred to as “State Channels”) with their own customizable consensus validation criteria occurring asynchronously.
“And so, each state channel could define its own consensus mechanism but it can also choose to simply inherit proof of reputable observation from the L0 is that correct? — Benjamin Diggles, CSO & Co-founder
“Proof of reputable observation actually occurs on every L0, however, every single state channel is able to engineer validation criteria that makes sense for them, on their L1. So, basically the L0 is still running a final validation step on the output of an L1 consensus protocol since it’s sort of like that final filter that goes through, but for a developer, in most cases, it’s really simple since you can just copy and paste what we’ve got right now and just change it for their data structures. They can use our L1 and then we can add extra validation logic which you can then embed into a partial function which results in very simple scripting process at that point. The L0 is going to look up what you’ve defined on the L1 and just run that final validation step right at the end before it globally converges.” Wyatt Meldman-Floch, CTO & Co-founder (paraphrased for brevity from Hypergraph Hour 23)
The topological hierarchy of the tech stack can be understood by the following illustration:
This is the magic that enables infinite scale. This same structure of complexity is inspired by bio-mimicry, how nature ultimately organizes itself into complex topological order in the physical world which is an interdisciplinary science studied as Complex Systems Science. I recommend checking out Sante Fe Institute’s book, “Worlds Hidden in Plain Sight”, if it is of further interest.
On-chain Programmability: State Channels vs. Smart Contracts
I won’t elaborate too much on this topic since Andrew Seer did a great write up about this already which you can read here. In short, you can think of state channels as the next generation smart contract in that they can easily model any logic and data structure that can be programmed into one but without their inherent limitations. With state channels you are essentially creating a DAG powered smart contract that can validate any complex data structure and business logic and also serve as an off chain data oracle at the same time, entirely compatible with external enterprise systems and programming languages that are utilized.
Developed using an Accessible, Performant, and Secure Programming Language
The choice of using Java Scala as the programming language allows simple integration into legacy infrastructure and systems while leveraging an army of over 8 million Java developers worldwide. Scala is statically typed and combines object-oriented and functional programming in one concise, high-level language that enables formal verification of code to validate its mathematical correctness. This is required for mission critical applications such as Fintech, Government, and Artificial Intelligence use cases that require extreme level of information assurance and code integrity (minimizes bugs and vulnerabilities).
“While Dynamically-typed languages perform type checking at runtime, statically typed languages perform type checking at compile time. This means that scripts written in dynamically-typed languages (like Groovy) can compile even if they contain errors that will prevent the script from running properly (if at all). If a script is written in a statically-typed language (such as Scala) contains errors, it will fail to compile until the errors have been fixed” — https://www.abukhleif.com/
Generative Economics: A Paradigm Shift to Sustainable Tokenomics
The generative economic philosophy embedded into the network is only possible with this technology because as the network horizontally scales and grows so does the value of the entire network itself. There are no scaling limitations that would impact the economics so it quite literally is a reinforcing and self-sustaining loop of value. This allows for fee-less peer to peer transactions to be economically feasible so that as each state channel economy grows in value it increases rewards to node operators and stakers for the entire network as a whole without extracting value out of the network from it’s participants and stakeholders. This programmatically applied generative economics theory is based upon Marjorie Kelly’s work while the mathematical mechanics and principles are based upon the work done on Thermoeconomics. A great example of how nature has applied the concepts of entropy and negative entropy to bio-energetic systems is by reviewing the recent scientific studies that have examined the equitable and sustainable exchange of information through bio-chemical signals between a forest of trees mediated by the underground mycelium networks that facilitate its interconnection and communication.
What is the role of the DAG token in the ecosystem?
Think of DAG as a utility token that is intrinsically tied to the function and therefore the economic value of Constellation Network. DAG essentially serves as the index token of the entire Constellation Network’s HyperGraph, reflecting the totality of value generated within its ecosystem. A business operating a state channel on the network requires DAG for network throughput and can attract this throughput by incentivizing node operators and stakers to contribute their DAG towards supporting their state channel’s consensus validation demands.
If you recall from earlier, each state channel has it’s own concurrent consensus being conducted on it asynchronously, separate from the global consensus validation being conducted to entire Hypergraph itself. The state channel can choose to reward the node operator/staker with it’s own minted L_0 token. Using the tokenomics example of Alkimi Exchange’s state channel, you will be rewarded with “ADS” tokens. Alternatively and/or additionally, a node operator could choose to validate the global consensus state of the entire network and be rewarded with DAG exclusively, or in a hybrid mode where they are validating a state channel of their choosing for one type of token reward while validating the global state for DAG rewards simultaneously.
What happens if the price of DAG becomes too high?
I initially asked myself this same question when first discovering these unique generative tokenomic mechanics. At first I struggled to wrap my head around it and was trying to extrapolate my knowledge from other crypto projects I was familiar with that attempted to solve the issue of price volatility by pegging the network token to fiat. It then occurred to me that this new paradigm actually aligns with the way business is done in the real world. It is essentially an exponential stable coin, a true and accurate commodification of utility and throughput on the network.
The easiest way to understand it is by using the analogy of real estate, in this particular example, a mall. A business rents out physical space according to the volume of space required to conduct their business and their preferred location and proximity to their clientele. Think of each state channel within the Hypergraph as a storefront and each node operator and staker as the landlords who are renting out the digital real estate to the business. This creates a competitive and self sustaining environment to conduct business in. The digital landlords essentially become banks that provide liquidity to these businesses and receiving compensation (interest) based on the parameters offered by that business.
As existing state channels grow their business and become more successful the economics will adapt to promote distribution of throughput to progressively least saturated state channels which would naturally consist of the latest businesses to onboard, thereby eliminating barriers to entry for new business to launch on the Hypergraph. This generative economics model generates self-sustaining loop of value that is then reflected in the macroeconomic activity across the Hypergraph like a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) monetary measure of the value of the market which is intrinsically tied to technical utility and price of DAG itself.
In a sense, you could regard DAG as embodying the very definition of what a “Bitcoin” actually is in the strictest technical interpretation of the term.
Securing the World’s Data Economy
The Glaring Inadequacies of Today’s Cybersecurity and the Urgent Need to Modernize the Internet’s Application Layer
“Centralized systems are too expensive and not fast enough to process, validate and manage the volumes of data required for making quick decisions in the field without significant security risks.” — Baseline Requirements for Government & Military Encryption Algorithms — Harris Corporation
Constellation’s HGTP — HyperGraph Transfer Protocol can be viewed as a new addition to the existing application layer of the TCP/IP stack which is fundamentally flawed because it was not designed with security in mind from its inception. To understand the sheer magnitude and significance of the problem you only have to look to the problems that have been identified by U.S. Department of Defense in their pursuit of a solution for their Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) program. As we all know there are constant reports of critical infrastructure and sensitive government agencies being hacked.
An article written by Vito goes over the basics of HTTP and its comparison to HGTP, so I won’t go into that here. There is a lot of misunderstanding surrounding HTTP, receiving criticism for aspects of the web experience that are unrelated to the protocol itself. HTTP is a protocol for encoding requests and responses. It relies on TCP/IP for transport and TLS for encryption, which are where the bulk of the performance and security issues lie. HTTPS is simply HTTP + TLS + TCP/IP.
The point is there are multiple layers that make up TCP/IP and enable the internet to function as it does today. By introducing a decentralized protocol into the existing application layer of the TCP/IP stack, internet nodes will be able to engage in peer to peer routing of internet traffic with immutability, security, auditability, and persistency that current protocols within the stack simply are incapable of. A great paper which evaluates the different ways the internet is centralized across the TCP/IP layers and how blockchain technologies can potentially fit into or replace various protocols and layers can be reviewed here. Harvard business review did a great examination of the parallels of TCP/IP adoption and Blockchain adoption here as well that is worth reading.
Economically, if the use of HGTP does become ubiquitous you could see similar arrangements of how the internet service providers have subsidized the overhead costs of the existing internet infrastructure. The internet has never been free in the sense that consumers always had to pay for access. A new protocol like HGTP doesn’t change this business model significantly, however, it will be interesting to see how exactly the costs would be passed down to consumers and businesses through subscriptions models. The return on investment, cost savings, and entirely new business paradigms that form over it will easily offset any of these costs.
Ultimately, the take away here is that Constellation Network has the potential total addressable market of literally the total size of the world’s data economy (which is exponentially growing) if it were to be adopted as the standard transfer protocol within the TCP/IP application layer. It is eligible for this only due to the unique technical capabilities I’ve outlined previously, no other DLT or Blockchain technology up to this point would be capable of handling the complex data structures at the scale needed to be successfully implemented as a new protocol into the TCP/IP application layer. It’s also worth noting that they were invited by the IEEE to collaborate and align on blockchain standards which was likely initiated by their work with the U.S. Department of Defense, an organization whom historically has had an integral impact on the original adoption and proliferation of the internet and TCP/IP.
Industries and Businesses Operating on the Hypergraph (as of Sep 16, 2021)
Constellation’s Main Net 2.0 is targeted for Q4–2021 with a gradual rollout that will enable state channels to become operational and permission-less nodes shortly thereafter (an updated roadmap for the remainder of 2021 will be published within the next few weeks). Part of Main Net 2.0 release will include updated whitepapers, developer documentation, and the HyperCube which will function as a user interface to simplify the deployment of nodes and state channels with open source developer tools (more details to follow).
The increase in diversity and number of state channels will only guarantee increase in the price and value of DAG while reducing volatility and ensuring higher highs as more businesses adopt and integrate with it. There will be a minimum of 75+ businesses operating over HGTP over the next 6 to 12 months (some sooner than that). According to Ben Jorgensen, CEO and Co-founder, they have such demand there is a backlog of businesses waiting to be on-boarded:
So far we can confidently say the following businesses will be integrating into Constellation Network:
GeoJam — Music & Artist Engagement: Mariah Carey, Billie Eilish, DJ Khaled, 24kgoldn, ZHU, Machine Gun Kelly, and more. NFTs are planned to be incorporated into the ecosystem along with broadening the scope beyond the music domain.
USTranscom / USAirforce — U.S. Government, Department of Defense. Constellation will be used in conjunction with Kinnami’s decentralized data fabric solution to secure data both in transit and at rest for the U.S. Airforce. The U.S. military is one of, if not the largest data generators in the world. Cryptorandgroup recently interviewed Ben Jorgensen, CEO & Co-founder, regarding Constellation’s U.S. government partnerships and he had this to say:
“Our efforts with the US Federal Government have opened up so many incredible partnerships that are working to build scalable network communication solutions by using our HGTP. Since Constellation is a communications protocol and an emerging standard, we need to connect with various Federal agencies and their commercial partners. We have spent the last two years building these tie-ins and have received about half a dozen letters of support from different government agencies that will rely on Constellation for the future development of digital infrastructure security and the secure transmission of data for a myriad of use cases.” — Ben Jorgensen, CEO & Co-founder
Finnovant — Biometric authentication using proof of existence tokens, stored on Kinnami’s decentralized storage network. GovernorDAO has also integrated their tech into their solutions. This compliments the US DoD use case as well as supporting seamless authentication throughout Constellation’s ecosystem and even adding another layer of security against Sybil attacks if desired. It is important to note that Finnovant is FIDO compliant in the way they store, transmit, and encrypt bio-metrics data. This is an international standard following by governments and enterprises worldwide that ensure your bio-metric data cannot be recreated in any way. Organizations such as National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence (NCCoE) regard it as the defacto standard.
Lattice Exchange — First to market crypto cross chain swaps. This will revolutionize the way decentralized finance is conducted by allowing seamless swaps across the heterogeneous blockchain networks. This can also perform as an exchange for swapping any digital asset beyond cryptocurrencies. Think about bonds or stocks, or a deed to a house, a title to a vehicle, etc.; the future of tokenization will truly transform the global economy in a way that will unlock value that was previously illiquid in nature.
Due to the unique qualities of the HyperGraph, developing specialized bridges for each external network is not required and there is no need to wrap tokens which subjects the asset to centralization and counterparty risk.
Token Events — Token events is a fan commerce network that enables direct participation and control over their sports and entertainment experiences. Introducing tokenization will eliminate the middlemen that have made it a business to purchase tickets at initial sale and re-sell them on the secondary market at an exorbitant markup (hundreds of percent). It will also enable new fan experiences through transparent data sharing which will restore trust and alignment between fans, tribes, and brands. This will ultimate restore control over data that is shared with 3rd parties. They are partnered with GSVS – Global Sports Venture Studio. Some of the brands and organizations that they indirectly eluded to be working with are the Green Bay Packers, Coachella, LA Football Club, Angel City FC, LA Dodgers, LA Lakers, Forum, Disney, Trust Wallet, Manchester United FC.
Cyberlete — Gaming ecosystem which will create a rule of Know Your Customer (KYC) that will help deter cheating at a foundational level to build trust and honesty for all clients in the ecosystem. There will be incentives built in as NFTs to award gamers with Trophies by participating in tournaments that are funded through its tokenomics. Gamers inherently becomes fans, streamers, and broadcasters by participating in it’s ecosystem.
Yieldapp — Decentralized finance banking (Defi) allows you to receive high returns on funds you hold as well as collateralize them into other financial instruments.
Greenheart CBD — Decentralized finance of the agriculture industry by establishing modularized farming with the help of AI driven drones and micro-financing.
Alkimi Exchange — The worlds first decentralized digital advertising exchange that will replace the inefficient and ineffective legacy programmatic exchanges that are currently dominated by centralized entities like Google and Facebook. Constellation will allow near instantaneous auditability and validation of the delivering of ad impressions while simultaneously and significantly reducing costs in the process. The looming changes to how digital advertising works within Apple’s iOS ecosystem will be a catalyst for adoption of their solution. Facebook’s abuse of their platform to promote news that puts itself into a positive light and their selective implementations of algorithms can all be mitigated with Alkimi.
Liechtenstein Exchange — Constellation will integrate with LCX which is the only regulatory compliant centralized crypto exchange that is authorized to trade the tokenized Euro. LCX will run a state channel and likely leverage Lattice exchange to route orders through (similar to what they do with uniswap). We await more details on the nature of the integration as LCX offers many different products and services which Constellation can be integrated into.
Splunk — An industry leading cybersecurity platform that enables enterprises and government agencies to monitor, stream, collect, and index data for analysis and visualization. Constellation can be used to validate the data that Splunk processes in different ways and can also plug directly into Constellation’s network to incorporate data from a specific state channel. Details forthcoming. Governments and enterprise around the world utilize Splunk’s technology as an integral component of their cybersecurity strategy.
Quant Network– If your not familiar with Quant, they essentially have created a set of APIs that function as an operating system to orchestrate different actions across various blockchain networks seamlessly. They call this product the Overledger. This enables decentralized applications to be interacted with across multiple networks. To use an analogy, think of Constellation’s relationship with Quant as the Underledger to Quant’s Overledger. Now imagine all of Quants mdapp APIs accessing the various Blockchain networks from within Constellation Network as a super bridge (for lack of a better term). This is just a secondary use case. A whitepaper also elaborates on the Quant’s integration with Constellation for it’s big data oraclization of IoT devices and smart cities — https://constellationnetwork.io/pdf/Quant_Constellation_Network_Technical_Integration_Overview.pdf
You can also listen to a joint conference call between Quant and Constellation from August of 2020 going over how they can work together.
Chainlink — Constellation will provide a stream of big data that is validated and secured over the Hypergraph which Chainlink can then use in their oracles. Data from smart cities and other off chain resources that no other network has the scale and flexibility to accommodate. The full scope of the partnership can be reviewed in the joint whitepaper that was published — https://constellationnetwork.io/pdf/Chainlink_Constellation_Network_Technical_Integration_Overview.pdf
Realm — Realm is an open source, cross-chain, metaverse game containing customizable microverses, called Realms, that players can create and interact with. You will be able navigate through them using AR with your smart phone as well as have VR experiences. It possesses a play to earn system that will use NFTs in very unique ways. Constellation hasn’t formally announced the details of their partnership but if you visit Realm’s website (realm.art) you will see Constellation Network listed (also in their whitepaper). Also, Realm’s telegram channel has confirmed the partnership, both as an investor and for technical integration. There are some very interesting advisors that could really propel adoption quite broadly. We await official details.
Strategically Positioned for Success
- Constellation has an Amazon partnership that goes beyond just using their services to host nodes or state channels. More details will be shared later this year.
- DoD JADC2 contract will involve multiple agencies using Kinnami and Constellation to secure their data in transit and at rest…this is on the horizon and Constellation is very well positioned to graduate to phase 3 of the SBIR/STTR contract and be eligible for JADC2 contract award over the next few years. There has been language used to describe some of the capabilities they are considering which aligns very well with the terminology that Constellation and Kinnami use to describe their technology.
- As a company, Constellation is ensuring they are aligned with the U.S. Government’s CMMC (Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification) requirements. It is a certification and compliance process used to implement the appropriate level of cybersecurity readiness to be eligible for being awarded government contracts. Many of the policies are based on ISO and NIST standards which are internationally mapped to each other which ensures that Constellation is mature enough to win awards in other countries around the world. Kryptopapi wrote a great summary in this twitter thread.
- Constellation has submitted a proposal for NASA’s MBSE — Model Based Systems Engineering For Distributed Development to secure highly sensitive engineering data pipelines. We are awaiting an update from the government on who they awarded the contract to.
- Constellation is in such a great financial position that they have acquired a company. Announcement of the details is imminent.
- Constellation is running an advanced node on COTI’s decentralized payment network to validate transactions on their network. They are a part of the scalable protocol alliance together as well.
- Members of IEEE, CAR, SpaceISAC, and other strategic foundations working on various technology standards for Blockchain, internet protocols, IoT, machine to machine interactions, satellites, autonomous vehicles, and more. Notably, SpaceISAC founding members includes huge defense contractors, engineering firms, and universities such as Lockheed Martin, MITRE, Northrop Grumman, Booz Allen Hamilton, Aerospace, Space Dynamics Laboratory, John Hopkins, Purdue University, Kratos, SES, Microsoft, Parsons, and University of Colorado. They also co-authored a white paper with MOBI and Schaeffler Group last year that defines the challenges with real world adoption of DLT as it relates to vehicle-to-vehicle communication standards and how to overcome them. A great medium article by
goes into more detail about the work done.
- AI centric crypto companies like VectorSpaceAI, SingularityNet, and Autonio Foundation have shown interest in the unique properties of Constellation Network and have been tracking it’s progression. I personally could see great mutual synergy between AI companies and the formal verifiable programming paradigm, reputation based consensus, and the scalable graph theory inherent to the network. The emergence of knowledge graphs and meta graphs being used in the latest decentralized AI innovations will require the unique qualities of the Hypergraph. Securing the the data pipelines which carry the datasets used to train AI models would also be a great use case for these projects to use Constellation.
- Wyatt Meldman-Floch has discussed the domain specific language (DSL) called Babel for interacting with Hypergraph along with a turing-complete programming language the team is researching dubbed “StackF” that would enable the possibility of distributed computing use cases on the network which would synergistic with AI use cases.
- As of Sep 2021 DAG is only available on Kucoin. Once it is listed on larger Tier 1 exchanges such as Binance, Coinbase, Kraken, Gemini, etc. the price action will move significantly. If this coincides with when permission less nodes become available there will be a parabolic move never seen before in the crypto space.
- The Hypergraph does not require a wasteful electrical consumption to operate due to it’s unique energy efficient consensus mechanism as well as its extremely low hardware requirements. Foundational nodes only need 4 CPUs, 4GB RAM, and 160GB hard disk space…most smart phones have more hardware resources than this! The estimated kw/h would be 0.1 per node on average.
Big thanks to Constellation community member Seth V for this article!